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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 13 : Sound

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Chapter 13 : Sound

How do you come to know that a ‘period’ is over in your school? You come to know easily that someone is at your door when he knocks or you hear the sound of the doorbell. Most of the time you can make out that someone is approaching you by just hearing the foot steps.

13.1 Sound Is Produced By A Vibrating Body

Touch the school bell when not in use. What do you feel? Again touch it when producing sound. Can you feel it vibrating?

Activity 13.1
Take a metal plate (or a shallow frying pan). Hang it at a convenient place in such a way that it does not touch any wall. Now strike it with a stick (Fig.13.2). Touch the plate or pan gently with your finger. Do you feel the vibrations?

13.2 Sound Produced By Humans

Speak loudly for a while or sing a song, or buzz like a bee. Put your hand on your throat as shown in Fig. 13.8. Do you feel any vibrations?

In humans, the sound is produced by the voice box or the larynx. Put your fingers on the throat and find a hard bump that seems to move when you swallow. This part of the body is known as the voice box. It is at the upper end of the windpipe. Two vocal cords, are stretched across the voice box or larynx in such a way that it leaves a narrow slit between them for the passage of air (Fig.13.8).

13.3 Sound Needs A Medium For Propagation

When you call up your friend who is standing at a distance, your friend is able to hear your voice. How does the sound travel to her?

Activity 13.7
Take a metal glass tumbler. Make sure that it is dry. Place a cell phone in it. (Remember that the cell phone must not be kept in water.) Ask your friend to give a ring on this cell phone from another cell phone. Listen to the ring carefully. Now, surround the rim of the tumbler with your hands (Fig. 13.10). Put your mouth on the opening between your hands. Indicate to your friend to give a ring again. Listen to the ring while sucking air from the tumbler.

13.4 We Hear Sound Through Our Ears

The shape of the outer part of the ear is like a funnel. When sound enters in it, it travels down a canal at the end of which a thin membrane is stretched tightly. It is called the eardrum. It performs an important function. To understand what the eardrum does, let us build a tin can model of the eardrum.

13.5 Amplitude, Time Period And Frequency Of A Vibration

We have learnt that the to and fro motion of an object is known as vibration. This motion is also called oscillatory motion. You have already learnt in earlier classes about the oscillatory motion and its time period.

The number of oscillations per second is called the frequency of oscillation. Frequency is expressed in hertz. Its symbol is Hz. A frequency of 1 Hz is one oscillation per second. If an object oscillates 20 times in one second, what would be its frequency?

13.6 Audible And Inaudible Sounds

We know that we need a vibrating body for the production of sound. Can we hear the sound of all vibrating bodies?

The fact is that sounds of frequencies less than about 20 vibrations per second (20 Hz) cannot be detected by the human ear. Such sounds are called inaudible. On the higher side, sounds of frequencies higher than about 20,000 vibrations per second (20 kHz) are also not audible to the human ear. Thus, for human ear, the range of audible frequencies is roughly from 20 to 20,000 Hz.

13.7 Noise And Music

We hear different types of sounds around us. Is the sound always pleasing? Does a sound sometimes cause discomfort to you? Some sounds are pleasant to the ear, whereas some are not.

Suppose construction work is going on in your neighbourhood. Are the sounds coming from the construction site pleasing? Do you enjoy the sounds produced by horns of buses and trucks? Such unpleasant sounds are called noise. In a classroom, if all the students speak together, what would the sound produced be called?

13.8 Noise Pollution

You already know about air pollution. Presence of unwanted gases and particles in air is called air pollution. Similarly, presence of excessive or unwanted sounds in the environment is called noise pollution. Can you list some sources of noise pollution? Major causes of noise pollution are sounds of vehicles, explosions including bursting of crackers, machines, loudspeakers etc. What sources in the home may lead to noise? Television and transistor radio at high volumes, some kitchen appliances, desert coolers, air conditioners, all contribute to noise pollution.



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