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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 5 : Coal And Petroleum

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Chapter 5 : Coal And Petroleum

Inexhaustible Natural Resources
These resources are present in unlimited quantity in nature and are not likely to be exhausted by human activities. Examples are: sunlight, air.

Exhaustible Natural Resources
The amount of these resources in nature is limited. They can be exhausted by human activities. Examples of these resources are forests, wildlife, minerals, coal, petroleum, natural gas etc.

5.1 Coal

You may have seen coal, or heard about it (Fig. 5.1). It is as hard as stone and is black in colour.

Coal is one of the fuels used to cook food. Earlier, it was used in railway engines to produce steam to run the engine. It is also used in thermal power plants to produce electricity. Coal is also used as a fuel in various industries.

5.2 Petroleum

You know that petrol is used as a fuel in light automobiles such as motor cycles/ scooters and cars. Heavy motor vehicles like trucks and tractors run on diesel. Petrol and diesel are obtained from a natural resource called petroleum.

Do you know how petroleum is formed?
Petroleum was formed from organisms living in the sea. As these organisms died, their bodies settled at the bottom of the sea and got covered with layers of sand and clay. Over millions of years, absence of air, high temperature and high pressure transformed the dead organisms into petroleum and natural gas.

5.3 Natural Gas

Natural gas is a very important fossil fuel because it is easy to transport through pipes. Natural gas is stored under high pressure as compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG is used for power generation. It is now being used as a fuel for transport vehicles because it is less polluting. It is a cleaner fuel.

5.4 Some Natural Resources Are Limited

You have studied in the beginning of the chapter that some natural resources are exhaustible like fossil fuels, forests, minerals etc.

You know that coal and petroleum are fossil fuels. It required the dead organisms millions of years to get converted into these fuels. On the other hand, the known reserves of these will last atmost a few hundred years. Moreover, burning of these fuels is a major cause of air pollution. Their use is also linked to global warming. It is therefore necessary that we use these fuels only when absolutely necessary. This will result in better environment, smaller risk of global warming and their availability for a longer period of time.



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